Fatness Is Strongly Influenced By Genetics, But How?

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/mgoblog/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 906.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /var/www/mgoblog/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 32.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/mgoblog/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 26.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/mgoblog/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 26.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_boolean_operator::value_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::value_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/mgoblog/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_boolean_operator.inc on line 13.
Jun 20 2012

An image from twin studies featured in the talk by Jeffrey Friedman posted after the jump, or click on the image for the YouTube link

A reader e-mailed me a good question about weight loss that’s outside my area of academic expertise but within the realm of stuff I’ve read enough about that I can offer some speculations and references. I am continually amazed at how complicated nutrition is and how much disagreement there is even among people who study it for a living. The only thing I can say with complete confidence is that anyone who tells you weight loss is simple and anyone can do it is (A) lying, (B) misinformed, (C) trying to sell you something, or (D) all of the above.

Here’s the e-mail I got:

If you have the time to answer a question...

I recently came across these articles claiming, more or less, that metabolism does not account for why some people are fatter or thinner than others. 

Article 1 [BBC Health]

Article 2 [Mayo Clinic]

I remember your posts on Sour Salty Bitter Sweet about dieting not being an effective solution to weight loss [here], and it sounded like you thought someone's weight had more to do with genetic factors than lifestyle factors. Do I have that right? Would you disagree with the articles? Or point to non-metabolic genetic factors?

-Anna Macdonald

simple! right? that's why everyone is precisely the weight they want to be! Image Credit: CDC.govBoth articles essentially argue that it’s a myth that fatter people have “slow metabolisms” and burn fewer calories than thinner people. Basal metabolic rates vary based on age, gender, and body composition (or maybe just body composition, but that tends to vary based on age and gender), but as far as researchers can tell, fat people have at least roughly the same metabolic rate as thin people. They just eat more.

I think they neglect or dismiss a few complications too easily—in both diet studies and over-feeding studies, subjects lose/gain less weight than they should based on caloric arithmetic, usually by a significant margin. That’s usually attributed to shifts in thermogenesis, or how much heat you generate, and unconscious motions like fidgeting. If you eat more than you’re used to, your body may respond by getting slightly warmer and engaging in more restless activity. Eat less, and your body may respond by getting cooler and engaging in less activity. There’s some evidence that even for the very rare individuals who lose weight and keep it off long-term, basal metabolic rate remains depressed compared to people with the same relevant characteristics (weight, age, gender, and body composition) who were not previously fat (see NYTimes “The Fat Trap”). Incidentally, there’s research from as early as 1980 suggesting that people who maintain weight loss long-term are frequently monomaniacal about food and exercise, engaging in behaviors that might be seen as evidence of an eating disorder in thinner people.

But in general, the articles seem pretty accurate up to the point where they claim that people can lose weight if they eat fewer calories and exercise. The BBC article even claims that “people not only manage to lose weight but are able to keep control of it in the long term,” which is technically true—a small percentage of the people who lose weight by dieting do—but certainly isn’t the norm. Both articles make an unsubstantiated leap from the idea that basal metabolic rate is at least relatively stable and consistent to the idea that therefore, anyone can be thin if they only eat as many calories as a thin person burns. The key question they fail to address is why fat people eat more calories than thin people in the first place.

I suspect that’s because most people think they know the answer: they assume fat people have less willpower, knowledge, or motivation than thin people and therefore make bad choices about what and how much they eat. There’s a widespread assumption that if fat people knew better or tried harder, they could be thin. Many people, whatever their weight, believe that they themselves would be probably thinner if they ate better and exercised more and would be fatter if they ate whatever they wanted all the time and exercised less (which is actually probably true, but only within a small range). A lot of people even have personal experiences with weight loss or gain that they may be able to attribute to conscious choices or lifestyle changes. However, for most people, those changes prove to be temporary and I think they overestimate how much control they actually have.

Fat people are not fat because they’re weak or lazy or unmotivated or unaware of the supposedly-dire medical consequences and actually-dire social consequences of being fat. Body size is strongly genetically determined and biologically-regulated. It may be sensitive to some environmental conditions, but that doesn’t mean it’s within individuals’ conscious control. If the tendency towards weight homeostasis doesn’t work by regulating how many calories people tend to burn, which I agree that it probably doesn’t, it must work by influencing how much people eat.

How Heritable Is Fatness? 

Also from the Friedman lecture below.Very. Perhaps less than eye color, but more than other conditions widely seen as having a significant genetic component, like schizophrenia or alcoholism. Based on twin studies, one of the classic ways of evaluating the genetic component of all kinds of conditions, weight consistently appears to be approximately as heritable as height—most studies conclude that just under 80% of variation in weight and height is attributable to genetics. Furthermore, genetic influence consistently trumps environmental effects by a wide margin. In adoption studies, another way of evaluating genetic influence, children’s weights are strongly correlated with their biological parents’ and not at all with their adoptive parents. 

In Stunkard et al 1986, which compared approximately 4000 sets of male twins, the “concordance rates for different degrees of overweight were twice as high for monozygotic twins as for dizygotic twins.” In other words, the “identical” twins who share nearly 100% of their genetic material were twice as likely to have similar body types than “fraternal” twins who share only 50% of the same genes. At age 20, comparisons of height, weight, and BMI for both sets of twins yielded heritability estimates of .80, .78, and .77, respectively (1.0 would be perfectly heritable, .00 would be not heritable at all). At a 25-year follow-up, the heritability estimates for the same traits were .80, .81, and .84.

In another Stunkard et al 1986, which divided a sample of 540 adult Danish adoptees into four weight classes: thin, median, overweight and obese, there were strong correlations between the weight class of the adoptees and their biological parents (p<.0001 for mothers, p<.02 for fathers). There was no correlation between the weight class of the adoptees and their adoptive parents.

In Stunkard et al 1990, the researchers used a Swedish database of twins separated early in life versus those reared together collected between 1886 and 1958. They ended up with 93 pairs of identical twins reared apart, 154 pairs of identical twins reared together, 218 pairs of fraternal twins reared apart, and 208 pairs of fraternal twins reared together. The mean age of comparison was 58.6 years old. The heritability estimates (shown in the chart below) are similar to those in the 1986 study. Notably, twins reared together were no more similar than twins reared apart.

"The fourth estimate of heritability, the intrapair correlation for the monozygotic twins reared apart, was the most direct and perhaps the best estimate of the heritability of the body-mass index. It was 0.70 for men and 0.66 for women."

A review study done in 1997 by Maes et al looked at the data from 25,000 twin pairs and 50,000 biological and adoptive family members, finding BMI correlations of .74 for monozygotic twins, .32 for dizygotic twins, .25 for siblings, .19 for parent-offspring pairs, .06 for adoptive relatives, and .12 for spouses.

Researchers have also been curious to see if the “obesity epidemic” has changed anything. Have environmental changes in the last few decades trumped genetic factors? Not really. In Wardle et al 2008, they evaluated 5092 sets of twins between the ages of 8 and 11 whose body measurements were taken in 2005. The heritability estimate for BMI was .77. In comparison, the shared-environment effect in the same study was estimated at .10.

As a 2008 review study of research on the heritability of fatness by Stephen O’Rahilly and I. Sadaf Farooqi concluded:

Hereditary influences on adiposity [fatness] are profound and continuing…. There is little serious doubt that the single most powerful determinant of inter-individual differences in adiposity is heredity.

Okay, But How Does It Work? Part I: Epigenetics

Genetics isn’t the whole story. We have known for a long time that children without access to adequate nutrition may have their growth "stunted," meaning they may never achieve the same height or weight as adults as they would have if they had been able to eat more as children. Dietary composition also seems to have an effect: populations with access to more protein (or calcium?) may grow taller or fatter than genetically-similar populations who consume less protein. The availability of highly-palatable, calorie dense, high-sugar and high-fat food in countries like the U.S. may create the conditions for some people (though clearly not all) to become fatter than they would in another environment. However, how fat they get in that environment  is still determined largely by genetics, just like how tall people get in the presence of ample protein is still largely determined by genetics.

There's a lot of research being done right now on what are sometimes called "epigenetic" effects, which are factors that influence whether or not (and how) genes get expressed, without any changes happening in the genome itself. This is the idea that genes can get turned “on” or “off.”  Some epigenetic effects are trans-generational, meaning something that affects a particular individual or population may only show up in their offspring. So, for example, population that experienced a famine may have offspring who are more inclined to store fat when it’s available than a genetically similar population that didn’t live through a famine.

See: This Nature article or Herrera et al 2011

Okay, But How Does It Work? Part II: Leptin

Leptin-deficient child before and after leptin therapyThe expression of genes that affect body size probably involves changes in the endocrine system, and particularly the release or suppression of the hormones leptin and gherlin, which control appetite and satiety. Leptin in particular seems to be crucial to the regulation of body fat. It was only discovered in the mid-1990s, so scientists are still trying to understand how it works and what the implications are.

Some extremely fat children, like the kid pictured on the right, have been found to be deficient in leptin. They have seemingly insatiable appetites—when presented with meals in excess of 2,000 calories, they’ll eat the whole thing and still be hungry. After receiving leptin injections, they eat age-appropriate portion sizes and lose weight rapidly without dieting or engaging in any formal exercise program.

One of the major differences between people who’ve lost weight through dieting and people who weigh the same without having dieted is in their leptin levels. Most of what I know about leptin (and most of images in this post) are taken by the following talk by the biologist who discovered the hormone, Dr. Jeffrey Friedman:

In the very beginning of the talk, he makes some causal claims about high BMI/adiposity and mortality that I disagree with, because I’m not sure the correlations are actually caused by fatness, rather than social stigma, racism, poverty, lack of health insurance, etc. (all of which are also correlated with BMI). If fatness caused mortality, why would “overweight” people live longer on average than “normal” weight and “underweight” people and “obese” people who are active live longer than “normal” people who are sedentary? He also says that even modest weight loss is associated with significant health improvements, and I wonder if that claim isn’t based on studies where participants begin eating more vegetables and exercising, lose something like 5 pounds, and get healthier overall and researchers conclude that weight loss improves health when really the weight loss is totally meaningless. But once you get past that bit, he makes a pretty strong case for the genetic basis of body size and the role of leptin in the regulation of body fat.

Okay, But How Does it Work? Part III: Endocrine Disruptors

Just to complicate things even further, it turns out that a lot of the chemicals we're exposed to can affect the endocrine system. Bisphenol A, the now-vilified chemical used primarily in plastics and also in the lining of aluminum cans, turns out to be an endocrine disruptor. Fluoride is also an endocrine disruptor. So are brominated fire retardants and many pesticides (even organic-certified ones, like copper sulfate).

Some of these may only affect people if they're exposed at a particular point in their development—in utero, pre-adolescence, etc.—or at a particular dosage. So if your mom ate a lot of highly-acidic canned foods while she was pregnant with you, that might affect your thyroid function from birth. Or if you spent a lot of time on a rug treated with flame retardant chemicals as an infant, that might affect you, but maybe if you'd been 5 or 6 years old, it wouldn't. Those are just hypothetical scenarios, the actual effects and doses of endocrine disruptors are not yet well understood or documented. So I’m not saying you should stop getting fluoride treatments. I suspect (and hope) that in another decade or so, we’ll have a better sense of how chemical exposure affects weight gain.

For more on endocrine disruptors and obesity, see Julie Guthman, Weighing In especially Chapter 5.

When Metabolism Matters: The Evidence From Overfeeding

If body weight is genetic, it should probably be nearly as difficult to gain weight as it is to lose it. Although it does seem to be possible to gain weight deliberately—some athletes and actors do this—it takes a lot of work. The results of overfeeding studies suggest that people who deliberately eat more than they would normally have to suppress their desire to stop eating and lose any weight they gain very easily as soon as they stop “overeating.”

BBC made an hour-long documentary about one of these studies, called “Why Are Thin People Not Fat,” which I first saw posted on Tom Naughton’s blog FatHead:

If you don’t want to watch it (spoiler if you do): ten thin people were told to eat twice as much as they normally do (the target caloric intake for men was approximately 5000 kcal/day) and refrain from exercise for four weeks. There was a lot of variation in the results—some gained more weight than others, some gained more fat than others. One of the participants gained muscle. None of them gain as much weight as they “should” based on caloric arithmetic, meaning there must have been changes in their metabolism. Additionally, the subjects report feeling pretty miserable: the amount of food they have to eat makes them feel sick. At least one of them mentions throwing up some of what he ate. They all get tired of milkshakes and chocolate and pork pies. And month after the experiment was over, the participants had all lost most or all of the weight they gained during the experiment without engaging in any deliberate weight-loss strategies.

The documentary mentions another overfeeding study known as the Vermont Prison Experiment. Researchers at the University of Vermont led by Ethan Sims initially tried to use students as subjects. They were told to eat 2-3x their normal caloric intake, but even after 5 months, most had increased their weight by only 10-12%. Sims’ goal was 25%, so he turned to inmates at the Vermont State Prison, who he describes as “equally dedicated volunteers.” After 200 days of eating up to 9-10,000 kcal/day, some of the participants were still not able to gain 25% of their starting weight. For the few who were able to gain 25% or more, in order to maintain the goal weight for any length of time, they had to continue eating on average ten times the number of calories that should have been necessary based on simple caloric arithmetic. This is also explained by metabolic changes—whether through thermogenesis or unconscious activity, the men were burning vastly more calories than before despite being prevented from exercising. Again, after the study was over, the prisoners easily lost most or all of the weight they had gained.

In Conclusion

The genetic influence on weight seems to work primarily by affecting how much people eat, not how many calories they burn. Fat people burn more calories than thin people, but they also eat more than thin people. That doesn’t mean that fat people “overeat.” Most people, fat or thin, maintain a relatively stable weight over long periods of time. If fat people were eating more calories than they typically burn, presumably they would be constantly gaining weight. Appetite and satiety are governed by biology, not willpower. Most people seem to be capable of consciously and deliberately reducing or increasing their caloric intake temporarily, but that’s difficult and unpleasant and virtually impossible to maintain long-term.

Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.

>"If the tendency towards

>"If the tendency towards weight homeostasis doesn’t work by regulating how many calories people tend to burn, which I agree that it probably doesn’t, it must work by influencing how much people eat."
This conclusion would seem to contradict the experiments where they over-fed people (and the dieting evidence, for that matter). (Particularly your link here.) Those seemed to find that weight homeostasis happened, at least to some degree, even when people really and truly did eat differently (either more or less than what was normal for them). And it sounds like changes in metabolism were definitely part of the mechanism for any one individual's weight homeostasis, even if people's "normal" metabolisms don't vary according to being overweight or not (per the original articles).

Your "Herrera et all" link (right above the two kid photos) is broken. (Apparently it is missing the colon after http.)

While it may be true that most people stay at "relatively" the same weight over time, that "relatively" is being compared to some million calories a year. Gaining 3 pounds a year might be a small percentage of your overall body weight, and an even smaller percentage of the total calories eaten in a year, but doing it for 20 years in a row makes you 60 pounds heavier than when you started. It's my impression that this gradual gaining of weight is very common; so the homeostasis/'set point' theory seems ... incomplete, I guess, to me.

overfeeding/diet is when metabolism matters

Just to clarify although I think we're saying the same thing: what I get from all of this is that under normal circumstances, weight is determined by the interaction between genetics & environment and regulated by the hormones that influence eating behaviors. It's when people deliberately ignore the cues they're getting about appetite/satiety, typically by eating less than they want but in the over-feeding studies by eating more, that there's a change in metabolism to attempt to compensate. So it's true that metabolism is involved in most people's weight homeostasis, but only as a second line of defense if appetite regulation fails, not as a genetically-variable difference where some people have "slow" or "fast" metabolisms.

I'm not sure why some people gain weight gradually and some don't, although given that the rest of weight is biologically-regulated, it seems more likely that there's a biological mechanism at work there, too. Perhaps the way some people's brains respond to highly-palatable food? Stephen Guyenet has written a lot about diets that activate reward pathways in the brain cause people to eat more: http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/10/case-for-food-reward-hypot.... I'm not as convinced as he is that elective avoidance of highly-rewarding foods is possible. Rats will go to pretty extreme measures to get their hands on high-fat, high-sugar food, so short of moving to a desert island where it's not available, I suspect that most humans will too.

However, and this is all anecdotal, some people seem to gain weight despite eating diets relatively free of high-palatability foods, in many cases because they've reframed those foods as "disgusting." So maybe it has more to do with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals or some other mechanism. Give the results of twin studies, I suspect that the weights people end up at, at whatever age, and whatever speed they got there, are still strongly genetically-determined.

Free Will

Out of curiosity, do you tend to think this way about most/all other aspects of life? I.e. that the decisions we make are primarily influenced by genetics & environment, and not by free will/conscious choice/whatever. Or are there other aspects of life where you think personal choice has more influence than it does in the case of obesity and weight?

broadly, yes

I think "free will" is a tricky subject, but I think that people have conscious control over many things besides weight.

I am exploring this subject

I am exploring this subject as part of a report I need to do on possible careers I might choose The Hillford. Thank you for your post it has valuable information on this topic. K Paul
Agen Texas Online Indonesia Terpercaya | MobilSedan COrolla

thanks very much for posting

thanks very much for posting this. i'll bookmark it and come back later to read some more http://phlebotomytrainingcertifications.com/

Good research. I like your

Good research. I like your article very much. Keep up the great work... - Jual Baju Online - Jual Sepatu Online

Do I have that right? Would

Do I have that right? Would you disagree with the articles? Or point to non-metabolic genetic factors?Bella Beach Properties

All over the world people are

All over the world people are trying to avoid fat gaining. People are so much concerned.
step to this link

This recipe is a great one. I

This recipe is a great one. I have taken this into my cookbook. I have tried this at once. see this page

This recipe is a great one. I

This recipe is a great one. I have taken this into my cookbook. I have tried this at once. bianor-plasticsolutions.com

I love to notify you that

I love to notify you that your blog is very good your location is good .Thanks a allotment. I would be glad to recommend the post for its quality content. Nice post. Huawei OSN product

But in general, the articles

But in general, the articles seem pretty accurate up to the point where they claim that people can lose weight if they eat fewer calories and exercise.
Free PDF Ebooks

Positive site, where did u

Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting? I'm pleased I discovered it though, ill be checking back soon to find out what additional posts you include.

It is a great remarkable blog

It is a great remarkable blog post, Given plenty of information and facts with it, These kinds of blog posts maintains the people interest on the website, and keep on writing a little more ... all of the best Iklan Rumah

very good

Jual Obat Tradisional Batu Ginjal Terbaik

Batu Ginjal adalah massa padat menyerupai batu yang letaknya di dalam saluran kemih dan dapat timbul penyumbatan. Jenis batu ini bisa membentuk terdapat pada organ ginjal sehingga penyakit batu ginjal. Penyakit Batu Ginjal tentu saja bisa sembuh dengan cara menjalankan pembedahan atau menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik, sudah pasti dengan dana yang banyak. Apabila anda tidak ingin melakukan penyembuhan penyakit batu ginjal menggunakan cara pembedahan, maka anda dapat menggunakan pengobatan alami dengan biaya yang lebih murah. Pengobatan yang benar adalah banyak konsumsi air putih yang disertai diet yang rendah kalsium. Kurangi memakan kacang-kacangan. Gunakan jenis pengobatan tradisional alami untuk penyembuhan penyakit batu ginjal yang aman.
Gejala Terjadi Pada Pasien Penyakit Batu Ginjal
ialah sulitnya buang air kecil, beberapa kali pipis tapi tidak selesai, perih di bagian atas kelamin saat buang air kencing, Urin mengandung berdarah serta protein lebih pekat. Dalam situasi tertentu bisa akan demam dan akan muntah.
Rincian Obat Herbal Penyakit Batu Ginjal amazon Plus
Pengobatan alami yang dapat diyakinkan yakni menggunakan obat tradisional sakit batu ginjal. Jus Manggis amazon Plus sangat mujarap dalam menyembuhkan penyakit batu ginjal secara tanpa efek samping untuk organ-organ tubuh yang lain. Pengobatan dengan menggunakan Obat tradisional penyakit batu ginjal amazon Plus merupakan pengobatan yang sagat tanpa efek samping dan telah terbukti ampuh menyembuhkan penyakit batu ginjal hingga tuntas, tanpa harus dengan cara operasi. Jus Kulit Manggis merupakan minuman kesehatan generasi terbaru, dimana merupakan campuran dari bahan-bahan alamiah yang mana sudah menggunakan tahapan pengamatan ilmiah selama tahunan. Jus Kulit Manggis di produksi menggunakan bioteknologi sangat canggih yang mengikutsertakan banyak ahli di bidang kesehatan sehingga sangat menjamin mutu serta konsistensi produk. obat herbal batu ginjal

Obat Herbal Ginjal Bocor Jus Kulit Manggis

Sakit ginjal bocor banyak ditemui pada anak-anak yang menderita kelainan fungsi ginjal. Ginjal bocor bisa disebut juga sebagai keluarnya protein dari dalam tubuh melalui air kemih. Merupakan sebuah anugerah luar biasa dari Allah bagi Negeri ini karna diberi tanah yang dapat ditanami pohon manggis yang ternyata memiliki khasiat super bagi pemeliharaan tubuh dan pengobatan segala macam penyakit. Salah seorang pegawai yang bekerja di sebuah kantor pelayaran nasional tepatnya di PT.Ocean Global Shipping Indonesia yang beralamatkan di Tj. Priok, Jakarta Utara, Agus Herianto umur tiga puluh sembilan tahun, kerap kali mengatakan ucapan syukur pada Tuhan yang maha tahu. “Puji Syukur Tuhan yang memberi jalan untuk saya dan istri untuk menemukan cara mengobati dengan cara tradisional bagi anak kami Varell A yang berusia 2.5 tahun, yang mengidap sakit ginjal bocor serta infeksi paru-paru,” papar Agus sapaannya, pada saat mengunjungi Graha amazon dibilangan Jakarta beberapa waktu lalu.
Pada bulan April dua ribu sebelas anak beliau Aditya setelah didiagnosa di Rumah Sakit swasta di bilangan Sunter, Jakarta Utara, menjelaskan ternyata Varell menderita penyakit ginjal bocor & gangguan organ paru paru. Menurut Agus, saat masuk rumah sakit, & ditangani oleh dokter, perut anaknya tidak terlalu buncit, tetapi selama sepuluh hari dirawat, perutnya malahbesar & keras. obat herbal untuk ginjal bocor

Obat Tradisional Alami Kanker Rahim amazon

Kanker leher rahim adalah sejenis penyakit kanker yang sembilan puluh sembilan koma tujuh persen diakibatkan oleh human papilloma virus onkogenik, yang mempengaruhi leher rahim. Kanker seperti ini dapat hadir dengan adanya pendarahan vagina, akan tetapi gejala kanker ini tidak terlihat sampai kanker memasuki tingkat yang lebih jauh, yang membuat kanker leher rahim fokus pengamatan menggunakan Pap smear. Kebanyakan pengamatan membuktikan bahwa HPV bertanggung jawab untuk semua kasus kanker leher rahim. Pengobatan termasuk pembedahan pada stadium awal, dan radioterapi pada tingkat akhir penyakit. Obat Tradisonal Kanker Serviks amazon adalah pilihan yang paling aman dalam menyembuhkan sakit kanker serviks sampai tuntas.

Penyebab Terjadinya Kanker Serviks :

Faktor Alami
Faktor alami merupakan pencetus kanker serviks pada saat berumur diatas 40 tahun. Semakin tua umur seorang perempuan maka makin tinggi risikonya terjangkit kanker leher rahim. Tentu saja kita tidak dapat mencegah terjadinya proses pertambahan usia. Namun kita dapat melakukan cara lainnya untuk mencegah bertambahnya resiko kanker leher rahim. obat kanker serviks

Nice Post

Butuh dana coba saja pergi ke salah satu agen terpercaya kami dan dapatkan dana segar. atau mungkin anda ingin berussaha dengan belajar bisnis online untuk memudahkan langkah anda dalam mendapatkan duit. Jika kurang lengkap maka anda perlu membaca bisnis online terpopuler 2014 mungkin anda lakukan.

kami juga menawarkan bebrapa produksi terbaru kami yaitu jersey bola yang mungkin anda suka karena banyak pilihan yang akan anda dapatkan dari beebrapa online store kami. baca lehih lengkap di jersey jogja untuk pembelian ini.

Saat ini saya juga sedang mengembangkan bagaimana Asus Zenfone Smartphone Android Terbaik dapat menjadi solusi terbaik demi masa depan bangsa ini. dan ini berguna untuk semua daerah yang anda. follow Berita bola untuk mendapatkan semua tentang bola terbaru dan terkini


Truck Meene she illustrate video as experiencing "magic". Now I'm unsure precisely what the techical expression for magic is but wonderfully I am aware exactly what Hellen indicates.magnetic whiteboard


Now I'm unsure precisely what the techical expression for magic is but wonderfully I am aware exactly what Hellen indicates.. http://www.apartments-for-sale-in-javea.com


I'm unsure precisely what the techical expression for magic is but wonderfully I am aware exactly what Hellen indicates..neuropathy miracle review

thanks beh

Ravine imagePROGRAF iPF815 hulk Format Machine may be a high-capacity tramp machine premeditated to grip sincere workloads. Created with the study documents industry in listen the 44\" broad iPF819 if you need the driver printer, you can check at Canon ImagePrograf ipf815 Download
Epson Personnel Pro WF-4640 All in one printer Action on the far back optical gimmick with the production drive pro WF-4640. Foreclose bill p.c on ink with lower writing appreciate vs. if you need the driver printer, you can check at Epson Workforce Pro Wf 4640 Download
Samsung Collection Mini S5 Review (shortly recall). Varied leaked Samsung Accumulation mini S5 tumbling. New, it perfectly was according , Commonwealth of Suomi that was once called the Nokia office , can metamorphose the quill region to be visited Aggregation S5 small version of this . if you need the gadgets info, you can check at Samsung Galaxy s5 Mini Review
This automobile was astonish guests at the World Causative Appear ( IIMS ) 2011. A6 3.0 TFSI quattro is carrying a spreadhead of benefits . one amongst them , the exercise of ' Audi apace build ' ( ASF ) which mixes the lightweight steel and aluminium materials , if you need the last info about car automotive, you can check at Audi A6 30 tfsi quattro Photos
Google adsense adalah sebuah syllabus PPC (Pay Per Move) y if you need the last info update about technology, you can check at Pengenalan Google Adsense kita
MAC OS X, and Unix Download. but let me to disqus almost the think archetypical. The Ravine Pixma MG8170 is by no suggests that slight. It weighs a vast ten.7kg if you need more info about geophysics, you can check at Canon Printer Drivers Rahmat

This is a real wonderful

This is a real wonderful blog. The information here has helped me a lot. It's the most cool blog that I have read in a long time. Thanks for this, mate. loyal 9 marketing scam

Very Nice

Obat Batu Empedu amazon Plus

Tahukan Anda apa yang dimaksud dari penyakit Batu Empedu?

www.bliherbal.com Kantong empedu yakni bagian penting di dalam tubuh manusia, yang memiliki fungsi guna menghancurkan lemak pada tubuh. Organ berbentuk seperti buah pear ini terletak di bawah hati & menampung cairan empedu, enzim pencernaan yang dihasilkan oleh hati.

Sedangkan, arti dari Batu empedu adalah? www.veherba.com
Batu empedu yakni kumpulan cairan pencernaan yang mengeras dan bisa terbentuk di kantong empedu. Biasanya, batu empedu mengendap di bagian bawah kantong empedu.

Maria mengidap penyakit batu empedu yang berkelanjutan. Beberapa RS & banyak ahli ternama sudah pernah mengobati penyakitnya, akan tetapi tidak memberi kesembuhan yang baik. Sehabis didiagnosis, dokter mengatakan bahwa ini hanya kurang minum air putih saja, akan tetapi kenyataannya tidak begitu. Maria kian gusar & khawatir akan penyakit yang diderita. obat batu empedu

Thanks for every other

Thanks for every other informative site. The place else may just I get that kind of information written in such an ideal means? I have a venture that I’m just now operating on, and I have been on the look out for such information.
read the hypothyroidism revolution system review


You will find upon purchasing that this bottle contains one month’s supply of male enhancement pills.. loft conversions herfordshire

You have made an

You have made an extraordinary showing. I will most likely burrow it and generally suggest to my companions. I am sure they will be profited from this site.
Hay Day Hack

ijin berkomentar (again)

Grosir baju muslim online menjual gamis dan tunik wanita. Kami juga menyediakan model jilbab terbaru seperti jilbab instan/ bergo dan pashmina yang syar'i namun tetap modis, silahkan lihat koleksinya dengan meng-klik link ini. Toko tas online di Jakarta menyediakan aneka tas keren dan modis. Tas punggung branded dengan model terbaru, silahkan klik link koleksi tas terbaru. Kami juga menjual tote bag aneka motif dan karakter yang lucu dan cantik dengan harga murah, terbuat dari bahan kanvas yang tebal, kualitasnya bagus. Silahkan lihat koleksi tote bag kami klik link ini. Cek  juga dompet branded terbaru kami.

Cara mengobati jerawat hingga tuntas yaitu dengan menangani jerawatnya terlebih dahulu sampai jerawat tak lagi nampak di wajah anda, silahkan simak caranya, setelah itu lakukan tindakan untuk bekas jerawatnya, dengan cara di blog ini. Alternatif perawatan kulit lainnya yaitu terapi wajah dengan oksigen. Cara ini sudah umum dilakukan, namun tentu saja biasanya tidak murah. Bagi anda yang tertarik metode perawatan ini, nano spray MCI dapat menjadi solusi. Cara kerja nano spray yang mengubah partikel air yang besar menjadi berukuran nano memudahkan oksigen meresap ke dalam pori-pori wajah, simak selengkapnya.

Jack Eskin

The place else may just I get that kind of information written in such an ideal means?dijual rumah

Thanks for this great post, i

Thanks for this great post, i find it very interesting and very well thought out and put together. I look forward to reading your work in the future.

This article gives the light

This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. This is very nice one and gives indepth information. Thanks for this nice article.


i find it very interesting and very well thought out and put together. I look forward to reading your work in the future.guocoland condo sims drive

We are really grateful for

We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. Great work. home warranty reviews
american home shield reviews

This is a wonderful article,

This is a wonderful article, Given so much info in it, american residential warranty
Appliance Repair


I am continually amazed at how complicated nutrition is and how much disagreement there is even among people who study it for a living.matt traverso overcome your diabetes today ebook review

That is ok

This is ok because soursalty is goos idea, and the whole article is on the great high level.


If the tendency towards weight homeostasis doesn’t work by regulating how many calories people tend to burn, which I agree that it probably doesn’t, it must work by influencing how much people eat.fridge repairs battersea


Elle est recyclable parce qu'elle est conçu avec du matériel récupéré et Open Source car les systèmes se trouvant embarqués sur les plaquettes sont des systèmes d'exploitation Open Source. Regarder plutôt la présentation.is there any way to get rid of herpes

Nice share of information

Nice share of information here. I really find this information really helpful for me. Thanks a lot, dude, for putting up this vital information on the internet for everybody to use.


Elle est recyclable parce qu'elle est conçu avec du matériel récupéré et Open Source car les systèmes se trouvant embarqués sur les plaquettes sont des systèmes d'exploitation Open Source. Regarder plutôt la présentation.construction harrisburg pa

Thank you for sharing This

Thank you for sharing This knowledge.Excellently written article, if only all bloggers offered the same level of content as you, the internet would be a much better place. Please keep it up! indonesia women


They were edged out by the AT&T team KorBell in the final hours, but the power of partnerships had been demonstrated in dramatic fashion.terrace ec punggol


Pengobatan yang benar adalah banyak konsumsi air putih yang disertai diet yang rendah kalsium. Kurangi memakan kacang-kacangan. Gunakan jenis pengobatan tradisional alami untuk penyembuhan penyakit batu ginjal yang aman.Online bingo

Most of the areas here can

Most of the areas here can only be gotten to by supercharging and flying supercharging (including one of the dragons). quickly) keeps the pacing up and makes your party seem heroic. article

THanks a lot

Apakah anda ingin merasakan hidup sehat sepanjang hari? Jika ya, maka anda perlu memperhatikan beberapa tips cara menjaga kesehatan anda. Di blog ini anda akan menemukan cara merawat tubuh anda sehingga selalu merasa segar. Tips dan Info Kesehatan Usia Lanjut . Lihat info lengkap dari produk crystal x lihat penawaran kami .
Knalpot motor saat ini semakin beragam dan anak muda semakin banyak yang menggilai type sport. Jika anda menginginkan knalpot murah dengan harga terbaik, maka anda bisa menemukannya di sini. Kami menyediakannya dengan harga yang sangat bersaing knalpot kawasaki er6 . temukan lokasi-lokasi tanah dan rumah di jogya yang sedang dijual download di sini .
Grosir baju muslim dengan model terbaru semakin menarik minat banyak orang karena saat ini semakin banyak sinetron religi yang mempopulerkannya. Jika anda menmyukai hijab dengan model terbaru kami menyediakannya secara grosir sehingga anda bisa mendapatkan harga lebih mudah grosir jilbab syria instan terbaru dan murah meriah . tips hamil lainnya silahkan buka halaman web kami. baca di sini .
Crystal X adalah terobosan terbaru perawatan keputihan. Harap memperhatikan cara penggunaan crystal x ini untuk membantu menjaga organ kewanitaan anda. Di sini anda bisa mendapatkan crystal x asli dengan kualitas yang terjamin. distributor crystal-x asli NASA . dapatkan panduan takoyaki dan makanan lainnya di sini download di sini .
Yusuf mansur adalah seorang ustadz yang sangat terkenal. Ustadz Yusuf mansur sudah melakukan beberapa proyek seperti membuat bisnis investasi, dan juga membangun sistem dakwah yang moderen. Jika anda ingin mendapatkan info yang lebih lengkap silahkan baca di sini e-miracle Yusuf Mansur . Dapatkan informasi tentang jual grosir busana harga murah. baca di sini .
Listrik prabayar adalah listrik yang harus dibayar terlebih dahulu sebelum bisa melakukan pemakaian. Listrik ini dapat anda beli dengan memesan token listrik online dari banyak situs yang menyediakannya. Salah satu sistus yang membantu anda 24 jam adalah jual pulsa listrik online . dapatkan daftar harga produk apapun itu hanya di sini. kunjungi website kami .
Apakah anda tertarik melakukan SEO untuk emmbuat blog anda terkenal? Tutorial SEO adalah salah satu yang perlu anda pelajari sebelum mulai membuat blog, karena blog tanpa kunjungan akan sia-sia saja. Jadi SEO bisa membantu anda mendapatkan kunjungan tertarget. cara membuat blog di blogspot dan wordpress . pelajari lebih lanjut cara membuat blognya silahkan baca selengkapnya .
Online shop saat ini semakin beragam. Ada yang menjual busana wanita, tas wanita, sepatu wanita, dan juga aksesoris. Jika anda termasuk peminat barang-barang seperti ini maka anda bisa mendapatkannya dari website berikut ini dengan transaksi aman. jual baju wanita online dengan harga murah . silahkan lihat koleksi baju wanita dan sepatu lainnya klik di sini .

You completed a few fine

You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the subject and found nearly all persons will go along with with your blog.
free garcinia cambogia

I admit, I have not been on

I admit, I have not been on this web page in a long time... however it was another joy to see It is such an important topic and ignored by so many, even professionals. professionals. I thank you to help making people more aware of possible issues.

Excellent information on your

Excellent information on your blog, thank you for taking the time to share with us. Amazing insight you have on this, it's nice to find a website that details so much information about different artists.


who maintain weight loss long-term are frequently monomaniacal about food and exercise, engaging in behaviors that might be seen as evidence of an eating disorder in thinner people. locksmith in chester

Excellent information on your

Excellent information on your blog, thank you for taking the time to share with us. Amazing insight you have on this, it's nice to find a website that details so much information about different artists.
how Fibroids Miracle can help get rid of uterine fibroids

I was extremely satisfied to

I was extremely satisfied to discover this site.i needed to thank you for this extraordinary read!! I doubtlessly getting a charge out of every last bit of it and I have you bookmarked to look at new stuff you post.
loyal 9 marketing reviews

Post new comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.